# Theory of Superunification

## понедельник, 30 апреля 2018 г.

## пятница, 11 октября 2013 г.

### Leonov. Theory of Superunification. Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation

Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation. 167-261 pages.

Chapter 3 of the book:

1. Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. http://www.cisp-publishing.com/acatalog/info_54.html

Chapter 3 of the book:

1. Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. http://www.cisp-publishing.com/acatalog/info_54.html

2. V.S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics: Theory of Superunification. Viva
Books, India, 2011, 732 pages. http://www.vivagroupindia.com/frmBookDetail.aspx?BookId=7922

TEXT PDF Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation

Read more:

TEXT PDF The universe: Boiling bouillon of quantons

TEXT PDF Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium

3.2.1. Return to the luminiferous medium

3.2.2. Optical media. Fizeau experiment

3.3. Fundamentals of gravitation theory

3.3.1. Two-component solution of Poisson equation

3.3.2. Deformation vector D

3.3.3. Equivalence of energy and mass

3.3.4. Gravitational diagram

3.3.5. Black hole

3.3.6. Additional gravitational potentials

3.3.7. Newton gravitational law

3.4. Reasons for relativism

3.4.1. Relativistic factor

3.4.2. The normalised relativistic factor

3.4.3. Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials

3.4.4. Limiting parameters of relativistic particles

3.4.5. Hidden mass. Mass balance

3.4.6. Hidden energy. Energy balance

3.4.7. Dynamic Poisson equations

3.4.8. Dynamic curvature of space-time

3.4.9. The speed of light

3.5. Nature of gravity and inertia

3.5.1. Formation of mass

3.5.2. Reasons for gravity and inertia

3.5.3. Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6. The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points

3.6.1. Energy balance

3.6.2. Absolute speed

3.6.3. Energy paradox of motion dynamics

3.6.4. Resistance to movement in vacuum

3.6.5. Dynamics equations

3.6.6. Bifurcation points

3.6.7. Complex speed

3.6.8. Relativistic momentum

3.7. Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves

3.8. Time problems. Chronal waves

3.9. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

3.10. Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)

Conclusions for chapter 3

References

TEXT PDF Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation

Read more:

TEXT PDF The universe: Boiling bouillon of quantons

TEXT PDF Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium

3.2.1. Return to the luminiferous medium

3.2.2. Optical media. Fizeau experiment

3.3. Fundamentals of gravitation theory

3.3.1. Two-component solution of Poisson equation

3.3.2. Deformation vector D

3.3.3. Equivalence of energy and mass

3.3.4. Gravitational diagram

3.3.5. Black hole

3.3.6. Additional gravitational potentials

3.3.7. Newton gravitational law

3.4. Reasons for relativism

3.4.1. Relativistic factor

3.4.2. The normalised relativistic factor

3.4.3. Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials

3.4.4. Limiting parameters of relativistic particles

3.4.5. Hidden mass. Mass balance

3.4.6. Hidden energy. Energy balance

3.4.7. Dynamic Poisson equations

3.4.8. Dynamic curvature of space-time

3.4.9. The speed of light

3.5. Nature of gravity and inertia

3.5.1. Formation of mass

3.5.2. Reasons for gravity and inertia

3.5.3. Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6. The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points

3.6.1. Energy balance

3.6.2. Absolute speed

3.6.3. Energy paradox of motion dynamics

3.6.4. Resistance to movement in vacuum

3.6.5. Dynamics equations

3.6.6. Bifurcation points

3.6.7. Complex speed

3.6.8. Relativistic momentum

3.7. Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves

3.8. Time problems. Chronal waves

3.9. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

3.10. Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)

Conclusions for chapter 3

References

## вторник, 12 февраля 2013 г.

### Theory of Superunification. Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?

**Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?**

Vladimir Leonov,

**Abstract.**It is shown that the birth mass of an elementary particle is a result of spherical deformation of the quantized space-time based on the concept of gravity of the curved four-dimensional space-time of Einstein. Theorists mistakenly believe that Einstein's theory of gravity does not fit into the Standard Model (SM). It is shown that on the contrary the SM does not fit into the Einstein's theory of gravity. Higgs boson is contradicts the concept of curved space-time as the basis of gravity. Therefore, Higgs boson is cannot carry the mass of an elementary particle. Mechanism for the generation of mass of an elementary particle discussed in detail in the theory of Superunification:

1. Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics.
Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science
Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. (Квантовая энергетика. Том 1. Теория
Суперобъединения. – CISP,
2010, 745 стр.) http://www.cisp-publishing.com/acatalog/info_54.html.

2.
V.S.
Leonov. Quantum Energetics: Theory of Superunification. Viva Books, India,
2011, 732 pages. http://www.vivagroupindia.com/frmBookDetail.aspx?BookId=7922.

**Contents:**- 1. Criticism of the Higgs boson in the Standard Model
- 2. The four-dimensional particle – the quantum of space-time (quanton)
- 3. The structure of the quantized of space-time
- 4. Electromagnetic symmetry and electrical asymmetry
- 5. Quarks
- 6. Gravitation and the birth of a mass
- 6.1. Electron and positron
- 6.2. The electron spin
- 6.3. Asymptotic freedom
- 6.4. Electron neutrino
- 6.5. Wave transfer of the mass
- 6.6. Neutron and proton
- 6.7. Shell sign-changing model of the nucleon
- 6.8. Plus and minus mass
- 6.9. The fundamental principle of relativity
- 7. Nature of nuclear forces
- 8. Black and white holes
- 9. Dark energy and dark matter
- 9.1. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
- 9.2. The curvature of the light beam in an inhomogeneous quantized space-time
- 10. New experimental facts
- 10.1. Quantum engines and asteroid defense
- 10.2. Cold fusion and the Usherenko effect
- 11. Conclusions
- 12. Annex to article. Contents of the book [1]
- References

The article is written in Russian, and it will be translated into
English.

Read more

### Theory of Superunification. Chapter 1. Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction

**Chapter 1. Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 1-67 pages.

Fundamental science has accumulated a
sufficiently large amount of knowledge to support the very fact of the discovery of
the space-time quantum (quanton)
and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). The concept of Superunification was
formulated by physicists. Many physicists do not doubt that electromagnetism,
gravitation, nuclear and electroweak forces are the manifestation of the united origin. The
concept of the unified field was
formulated by Einstein and he devoted 30 years to the development of this concept in the path to
unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. He succeeded within the framework of the
general theory of relativity (GTR) to combine space and time into the single space-time
substance. Already at the end of his
life, Einstein concluded that it is necessary to use discrete approaches to the problem of space-time
and unification of the interactions within the framework of quantum theory.

There are various approaches to solving
these problems in theoretical physics. This also concerns the problem of
unification. We can go along the path of finding some universal formula (or a set
of formulas) describing the fundamental interactions by mathematical methods,
or along the path of finding a
universal unifying particle. The alternate path was less attractive to investigators because physics did not
know such a particle and the possibilities of discovering this particle were not
clear. However, this second approach has been selected in the path to unification
of interactions. This also determined the
logics and expected success.

1.2. Main
problems on the road to Superunification theory

1.2.1.
Problem of energy levels

1.2.2.
Problem of motion

1.2.3.
Problem of mass

1.2.4.
Problem of relativity

1.3. The
universe: Boiling `bouillon' of quantons

1.3.1.
Introduction

1.3.2.
`Bouillon' from quantons

1.3.3. How
to weld elementary particles

1.3.4.
Return to the light-bearing (luminiferous) medium

1.3.5.
Gravity. Inertia. Black holes

1.3.6.
Antigravitation. Minus mass. White holes

1.3.7.
Problem of time. Chronal fields

1.3.8. Who
lights up stars?

1.3.9. Superstrings

1.3.10.
Main problems of modern physics

1.3.11.
Problems of inflationary theory

1.4. The
Einstein posthumous phrase

1.5.
Conclusion to chapter 1

### Theory of Superunification. Chapter 2. Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum

**Chapter**

**2.**

**Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 68-166 pages.

New fundamental discoveries of the
space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI)
determine the electromagnetic structure of quantised space-time. The quanton is a complicated weightless
particle which includes four charges – quarks: two electrical (+1

*e*and –1*e*) and two magnetic (+1*g*and – 1*g*) linked by the relationship*g*=*C*_{0}*e*.
2.1.
Introduction

2.2/
Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time

2.2.1.
Basis of the theory of EQM and Superunification

2.2.2.
Unification of electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Structure of
the quanton

2.2.3. The
charge of the Dirac monopole

2.2.4.
Dimensions of the quanton

2.2.5.
Symmetry of electricity and magnetism inside a quanton

2.2.6. The
structure of the monopole-quark

2.2.7.
Electromagnetic quantisation of space

2.2.8.
Electrical symmetry of space

2.2.9. The
speed of movement of the space clock

2.2.10. Stability
and energy capacity of the quanton

2.3.
Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time

2.3.1. The
state of electromagnetic equilibrium of quantised space-time

2.3.2.
Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium in statics

2.3.3.
Disruption of electromagnetic equilibrium in dynamics. Maxwell equations

2.3.4.
Displacement of the charges in the quanton and bias currents

2.3.5.
Displacement of the charges in the quanton in statics

2.3.6.
Polarisation energy of the quanton

2.3.7.
Nature of electromagnetic oscillations in vacuum

2.3.8.
Quantisation of the electromagnetic wave

2.3.9.
Circulation of electrical and magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetic wave

2.3.10.
Transfer of energy by the quanton in the electromagnetic wave

2.4.
Electromagnetic tensioning of vacuum. Strings and superstrings

2.4.1.
Elastic quantised medium (EQM)

2.4.2.
Tensioning of the electromagnetic
superstring

2.5.3.
Tension tensor in vacuum

2.5. Conclusions
for chapter 2

**2.5. Conclusions for chapter 2**

New fundamental discoveries of the
space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI)
determine the electromagnetic structure of quantised space-time.

The quanton is a complicated weightless
particle which includes four charges – quarks: two electrical (+1

*e*and –1*e*) and two magnetic (+1*g*and – 1*g*) linked by the relationship*g*=*Ce*.
The quanton is the carrier of
electromagnetism, space and time, and a carrier of strong electromagnetic
interaction. The process of electromagnetic quantisation of space is associated with
filling of its volume with quantons. The quanton diameter determines the discreteness of
the quantised space-time of the order of 10

^{–}^{25}m.
When analysing the electromagnetic
perturbation of the quantised space-time, the nature of electromagnetic
phenomena, the laws of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell equations and
Pointing vector have been described for the first time.

The electromagnetism of quantised
space-time is fully symmetric and determines the transfer of electromagnetic
energy in accordance with the Maxwell equations. The nature of rotors in the
electromagnetic wave has been determined.

It has also been shown that as we move
deeper, initially into the region of the microworld of elementary particles and
the atomic nucleus ~101 m

^{–15}m and subsequently into the region of the ultra-microworld ~10^{–25}m of the quantised space-time, we encounter higher and higher energy concentrations. The energy capacity of the quanton is colossal and estimated at 10^{73}J/m3. This is sufficient to generate a universe as a result of a big bang in activation of^{3}of vacuum.
It has also been found that the
electromagnetic perturbation of the vacuum is described by a simple equation: D

*x*= –D*y*which can be expanded into the main equations of the electromagnetic field in vacuum. The displacement from the equilibrium deposition of the electrical D*x*and magnetic D*y*charges – quarks inside the quanton disrupts the electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time. Real bias currents were found in the electromagnetic wave.
Inside the quantised space-time we can
find an electromagnetic string or a superstring of quantons which determines
the colossal tension of the quantised space-time. Taking into account the fact
that the quanton is a volume elastic element similar to some extent to an
electronic clock specifying the rate of electromagnetic processes and time, the
quantum not only combines electricity and magnetism but, being a space-time
quantum, it combines the space and time into a single substance: quantised
space-time.

### Theory of Superunification. Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation

**Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 167-261 pages.

The beginning of the 20th century was
marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the
general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of
gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that
there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and
gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong
electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is
the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration
of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the
quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the
quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation
of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient
redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton
concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the
framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the
unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.

3.1.
Introduction

3.2. Nature
of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium

3.2.1.
Return to the luminiferous medium

3.2.2.
Optical media. Fizeau experiment

3.3.
Fundamentals of gravitation theory

3.3.1.
Two-component solution of Poisson
equation

3.3.2.
Deformation vector D

3.3.3.
Equivalence of energy and mass

3.3.4.
Gravitational diagram

3.3.5.
Black hole

3.3.6.
Additional gravitational potentials

3.3.7. Newton
gravitational law

3.4.
Reasons for relativism

3.4.1.
Relativistic factor

3.4.2. The
normalised relativistic factor

3.4.3.
Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials

3.4.4.
Limiting parameters of relativistic particles

3.4.5.
Hidden mass. Mass balance

3.4.6.
Hidden energy. Energy balance

3.4.7.
Dynamic Poisson equations

3.4.8.
Dynamic curvature of space-time

3.4.9. The
speed of light

3.5. Nature
of gravity and inertia

3.5.1.
Formation of mass

3.5.2.
Reasons for gravity and inertia

3.5.3.
Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6. The
principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points

3.6.1.
Energy balance

3.6.2.
Absolute speed

3.6.3.
Energy paradox of motion dynamics

3.6.4.
Resistance to movement in vacuum

3.6.5.
Dynamics equations

3.6.6.
Bifurcation points

3.6.7.
Complex speed

3.6.8.
Relativistic momentum

3.7. Wave
mass transfer. Gravitational waves

3.8. Time
problems. Chronal waves

3.9.
Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies

3.10.
Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)

Conclusions
for chapter 3

References

**Conclusions for chapter 3**

The unification of electromagnetism and
gravitation was regarded as a fact. It has been established that gravitation is
of the electromagnetic nature whose carrier is the superstrong electromagnetic
interaction (SEI).

Gravitation appears in the quantised
space-time as a result of its spherical deformation in the formation of the
mass of elementary particles.

Correct two-component solutions of the
Poisson gravitational equation in the form of a system have been determined for
the first time. The functions of distribution of the quantum density of the
medium and gravitational potentials inside the particle (solid) in the external
region of the spherically deformed quantised space-time have been determined.

It is shown that these spherical
functions remain invariant in the entire range of speeds, including the speed
of light, and formulate principle of spherical invariance and relative-absolute
dualism.

The principal relativity is the
fundamental property of the quantised space-time. Gravity is caused by the
gradient of the quantum density of the medium and by its deformation vector
with the gravity and inertia acting in the direction of this vector.

The force of inertia is also caused by
the gradient of the quantum density of the medium and works in the direction of
the deformation vector. The gravitational field is quantised in its principle.
The space-time quantum (quanton), as a carrier of the gravitational field, is
used as a basis for developing the quantum theory of gravitation.

The discovery of the quanton has
returned the deterministic base to the quantum theory which was supported by
Einstein. The classic wave equation of the elementary particle determining the
wave transfer of mass in the superhard and the superelastic quantised medium
was analytically derived for the first time.

The wave transfer of mass determines the
effect of the principle of corpuscular-wave dualism in which the particle shows
both the properties of the wave and the corpuscle.

It has been established that the free
gravitational wave with the speed of light and longitudinal oscillations of the
quantised medium, generating the longitudinal the zones of compression and
tension in the quantised medium, can exist in the quantised space-time.

The nature of gravitation, which
explains the accelerated recession of the galaxies of our universe, has been
determined.

### Theory of Superunification. Chapter 4. The quantised structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino

**Chapter**

**4.**

**The quantised structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino**

Leonov V. S.
Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge
International Science Publishing, 2010, 262-351 pages.

The quantised structure of the electron
and the positron has been investigated in the development of the Superunification theory. These particles are open quantum
mechanical systems and are the compound part of the quantised space-time. The
electron (positron) as an elementary particle forms as a result of attraction
of the quantons to the central electrical charge placed in the quantised
medium. As a result of the spherical deformation of the medium, the electrical
charge acquires the mass and transforms into the electron (positron). It has
been established that the main factor which ensures spherical deformation of
the medium by the electron is its spherical magnetic field, an analogue of the
spin. In annihilation of the electron and the positron the spherical magnetic
field is disrupted and the energy of the spherical deformation of the medium,
i.e., the energy of the mass defect, is released and transforms into radiation
gamma quanta. The released massless charges merge into an electrical dipole,
forming the electron neutrino, an information bit indicating that the pair of
the particles electron and positron did exist. It has also been found that the
movement of the electron (positron) in the superelastic and superhard quantised
medium is determined by the wave transfer of mass and tunnelling of the point
electrical charge in the channels between the quantons of the medium.

4.1.
Introduction

4.2.
Classic electron radius

4.3.
Gravitational boundary of the electron

4.4.
Electrical radius of the electron

4.5. Hidden
energy and electron mass

4.6. Many
relationships of electron parameters

4.7. Gravitational
diagram and electron zones

4.8. The
gravitational attraction zone

4.9.
Equivalence of gravitational and electromagnetic energies

4.10. Tensioning
of the medium by the electron

4.11.
Gravitational well of the electron

4.12. The
zone of antigravitational repulsion

4.13. The
zone of the minus mass of the electron

4.14.
Annihilation of the electron and the positron

4.15. The
effect of electrical force on the quanton in the electron

4.16.
Effect of the spherical magnetic field of the quanton. Electron spin

4.17.
Electron energy balance

4.18.
Tunnelling of the charge and wave transfer of electron mass

4.19.
Conclusions

References

**4 .19. Conclusions**

1. New fundamental discoveries of the
space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction enable
us to investigate the quantised structure of the electron and the positron as
an open quantum mechanical system, being the compound part of the quantised
space-time. The electron and the positron as elementary particles are in fact
not so elementary and their composition includes a large number of quantons
which together with the central electrical charge form the particle inside the quantised
medium.

2. It has been established that the mass
of the electron (positron) forms as a result of attraction of the quantons to
the central electrical charge under the effect of ponderomotive forces of the
nonuniform radial electrical field of the central charge. At the same time, a
spherical magnetic field, a spin analogue, forms around the central charge. In
particular, the spherical magnetic field of the electron (positron) is the main
factor which ensures spherical deformation of the quantised medium leading to
the formation of the mass of the particle. In contrast to the nuclons, the
electron (positron) does not have any distinctive gravitational boundary in the
quantised medium. The conventional gravitational boundary of the electron
(positron) is represented by its classic radius, producing a ‘jump’ in the
quantum density of the medium.

3. The gravitational diagram of the
electron (positron) has been analysed. Several characteristic energy zones were
found in the electron (positron):

• the zone of gravitational attraction
(gravitational well);

• the zone of gravitational repulsion
(gravitational hillock);

• the zone of hidden mass and energy

The effect of the zone of gravitational
repulsion is evident at the distances smaller than the classic electron radius
(of the order of 10

^{–15}m. This explains the capacity of the electron to move away from the proton nucleus of the atom, with the exception of the electron capture regime. This also explains the change of the nuclear attraction forces to the repulsion forces when the alternating shells of the nucleons come together to distances smaller than the effect of the nuclear forces 10^{–15}m.
4. The balance of the energy and
electron mass (positron) in the entire range of speeds in the quantised medium,
including the speed of light, have been determined. The electron energy is
manifested as a difference between its limiting and hidden energies. The
electron mass is a difference between its limiting and hidden masses. With the
increase of the electron speed, the hidden energy and mass of the electron
change to the observed forms.

5. The tensioning of the quantised
medium around the electron has been investigated. The maximum tension force
reaches the value 29 N on the surface of the gravitational boundary of the electron,
and the tension is estimated at 0.29·10

^{30}N/m^{2}for the electron in the rest state and increases with the increase of the speed in proportion to the normalised relativistic factor. As a result of the colossal tension of the medium, the electron retains its spherical shape. At the same time, the spherical gravitational field is retained in the entire speed range, including the speed of light, with the principle of spherical invariance valid in this case.
7. It has been established that the
movement of the electron (positron) in the superelastic and superhard quantised
medium is determined by the wave transfer of mass and by tunnelling of the
point charge in the channels between the quantons of the medium. Annihilation
of the electron and the positron is accompanied by the disruption of the
spherical magnetic field and the released energy of spherical deformation of
the medium, as a mass defect, transforms to radiation gamma quanta. The
released mass free charges merge into an electrical dipole, forming an
electronic neutrino, which is an information bit relating to the existence of a
pair of particles: electron and positron. The laws of conservation in
annihilation of the electron and the positron are valid only in this case.

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