пятница, 11 октября 2013 г.

Leonov. Theory of Superunification. Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation

Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation.  167-261 pages.

Chapter 3 of the book:

1. Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages.  http://www.cisp-publishing.com/acatalog/info_54.html

2. V.S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics: Theory of Superunification. Viva Books, India, 2011, 732 pages. http://www.vivagroupindia.com/frmBookDetail.aspx?BookId=7922


TEXT PDF Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation

Read more:
TEXT PDF The universe: Boiling bouillon of quantons
TEXT PDF Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?


The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium
3.2.1. Return to the luminiferous medium
3.2.2. Optical media. Fizeau experiment
3.3. Fundamentals of gravitation theory
3.3.1. Two-component solution of Poisson equation
3.3.2. Deformation vector D
3.3.3. Equivalence of energy and mass
3.3.4. Gravitational diagram
3.3.5. Black hole
3.3.6. Additional gravitational potentials
3.3.7. Newton gravitational law
3.4. Reasons for relativism
3.4.1. Relativistic factor
3.4.2. The normalised relativistic factor
3.4.3. Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials
3.4.4. Limiting parameters of relativistic particles
3.4.5. Hidden mass. Mass balance
3.4.6. Hidden energy. Energy balance
3.4.7. Dynamic Poisson equations
3.4.8. Dynamic curvature of space-time
3.4.9. The speed of light
3.5. Nature of gravity and inertia
3.5.1. Formation of mass
3.5.2. Reasons for gravity and inertia
3.5.3. Simple quantum mechanics effects
3.6. The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points
3.6.1. Energy balance
3.6.2. Absolute speed
3.6.3. Energy paradox of motion dynamics
3.6.4. Resistance to movement in vacuum
3.6.5. Dynamics equations
3.6.6. Bifurcation points
3.6.7. Complex speed
3.6.8. Relativistic momentum
3.7. Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves
3.8. Time problems. Chronal waves
3.9. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
3.10. Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)
Conclusions for chapter 3
References



вторник, 12 февраля 2013 г.

Theory of Superunification. Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?


 Einstein vs Higgs: or what is a mass?
Vladimir Leonov,
Abstract. It is shown that the birth mass of an elementary particle is a result of spherical deformation of the quantized space-time based on the concept of gravity of the curved four-dimensional space-time of Einstein. Theorists mistakenly believe that Einstein's theory of gravity does not fit into the Standard Model (SM). It is shown that on the contrary the SM does not fit into the Einstein's theory of gravity. Higgs boson is contradicts the concept of curved space-time as the basis of gravity. Therefore, Higgs boson is cannot carry the mass of an elementary particle. Mechanism for the generation of mass of an elementary particle discussed in detail in the theory of Superunification:

1.      Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. (Квантовая энергетика. Том 1. Теория Суперобъединения. – CISP, 2010, 745 стр.) http://www.cisp-publishing.com/acatalog/info_54.html.


2.      V.S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics: Theory of Superunification. Viva Books, India, 2011, 732 pages. http://www.vivagroupindia.com/frmBookDetail.aspx?BookId=7922.
  • Contents:
  • 1. Criticism of the Higgs boson in the Standard Model
  • 2. The four-dimensional particle – the quantum of space-time (quanton)
  • 3. The structure of the quantized of space-time
  • 4. Electromagnetic symmetry and electrical asymmetry
  • 5. Quarks
  • 6. Gravitation and the birth of a mass
  • 6.1. Electron and positron
  • 6.2. The electron spin
  • 6.3. Asymptotic freedom
  • 6.4. Electron neutrino
  • 6.5. Wave transfer of the mass
  • 6.6. Neutron and proton
  • 6.7. Shell sign-changing model of the nucleon
  • 6.8. Plus and minus mass
  • 6.9. The fundamental principle of relativity
  • 7. Nature of nuclear forces
  • 8. Black and white holes
  • 9. Dark energy and dark matter
  • 9.1. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
  • 9.2. The curvature of the light beam in an inhomogeneous quantized space-time
  • 10. New experimental facts
  • 10.1. Quantum engines and asteroid defense
  • 10.2. Cold fusion and the Usherenko effect
  • 11. Conclusions
  • 12. Annex to article. Contents of the book [1]
  • References

The article is written in Russian, and it will be translated into English.

Read more

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 1. Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction


Chapter 1. Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 1-67 pages.

Fundamental science has accumulated a sufficiently large amount of knowledge to support the very fact of the discovery of the space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). The concept of Superunification was formulated by physicists. Many physicists do not doubt that electromagnetism, gravitation, nuclear and electroweak forces are the manifestation of the united origin. The concept of the unified field was formulated by Einstein and he devoted 30 years to the development of this concept in the path to unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. He succeeded within the framework of the general theory of relativity (GTR) to combine space and time into the single space-time substance. Already at the end of his life, Einstein concluded that it is necessary to use discrete approaches to the problem of space-time and unification of the interactions within the framework of quantum theory.

There are various approaches to solving these problems in theoretical physics. This also concerns the problem of unification. We can go along the path of finding some universal formula (or a set of formulas) describing the fundamental interactions by mathematical methods, or along the path of finding a universal unifying particle. The alternate path was less attractive to investigators because physics did not know such a particle and the possibilities of discovering this particle were not clear. However, this second approach has been selected in the path to unification of interactions. This also determined the logics and expected success.

1.2. Main problems on the road to Superunification theory
1.2.1. Problem of energy levels
1.2.2. Problem of motion
1.2.3. Problem of mass
1.2.4. Problem of relativity

1.3. The universe: Boiling `bouillon' of quantons
1.3.1. Introduction
1.3.2. `Bouillon' from quantons
1.3.3. How to weld elementary particles
1.3.4. Return to the light-bearing (luminiferous) medium
1.3.5. Gravity. Inertia. Black holes
1.3.6. Antigravitation. Minus mass. White holes
1.3.7. Problem of time. Chronal fields
1.3.8. Who lights up stars?
1.3.9. Superstrings
1.3.10. Main problems of modern physics
1.3.11. Problems of inflationary theory

1.4. The Einstein posthumous phrase
1.5. Conclusion to chapter 1

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 2. Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum


Chapter 2. Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 68-166 pages.

New fundamental discoveries of the space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) determine the electromagnetic structure of quantised space-time. The quanton is a complicated weightless particle which includes four charges – quarks: two electrical (+1e and –1e) and two magnetic (+1g and – 1g) linked by the relationship g = C0e.


2.1. Introduction
2.2/ Electromagnetic quantisation of space-time
2.2.1. Basis of the theory of EQM and Superunification
2.2.2. Unification of electricity and magnetism into electromagnetism. Structure of the quanton
2.2.3. The charge of the Dirac monopole
2.2.4. Dimensions of the quanton
2.2.5. Symmetry of electricity and magnetism inside a quanton
2.2.6. The structure of the monopole-quark
2.2.7. Electromagnetic quantisation of space
2.2.8. Electrical symmetry of space
2.2.9. The speed of movement of the space clock
2.2.10. Stability and energy capacity of the quanton

2.3. Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time
2.3.1. The state of electromagnetic equilibrium of quantised space-time
2.3.2. Disruption of electrical and magnetic equilibrium in statics
2.3.3. Disruption of electromagnetic equilibrium in dynamics. Maxwell equations
2.3.4. Displacement of the charges in the quanton and bias currents
2.3.5. Displacement of the charges in the quanton in statics
2.3.6. Polarisation energy of the quanton
2.3.7. Nature of electromagnetic oscillations in vacuum
2.3.8. Quantisation of the electromagnetic wave
2.3.9. Circulation of electrical and magnetic fluxes in the electromagnetic wave
2.3.10. Transfer of energy by the quanton in the electromagnetic wave

2.4. Electromagnetic tensioning of vacuum. Strings and superstrings
2.4.1. Elastic quantised medium (EQM)
2.4.2. Tensioning of the electromagnetic  superstring
2.5.3. Tension tensor in vacuum
2.5. Conclusions for chapter 2

2.5. Conclusions for chapter 2
New fundamental discoveries of the space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) determine the electromagnetic structure of quantised space-time.

The quanton is a complicated weightless particle which includes four charges – quarks: two electrical (+1e and –1e) and two magnetic (+1g and – 1g) linked by the relationship g = Ce.

The quanton is the carrier of electromagnetism, space and time, and a carrier of strong electromagnetic interaction. The process of electromagnetic quantisation of space is associated with filling of its volume with quantons. The quanton diameter determines the discreteness of the quantised space-time of the order of 1025 m.

When analysing the electromagnetic perturbation of the quantised space-time, the nature of electromagnetic phenomena, the laws of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell equations and Pointing vector have been described for the first time.

The electromagnetism of quantised space-time is fully symmetric and determines the transfer of electromagnetic energy in accordance with the Maxwell equations. The nature of rotors in the electromagnetic wave has been determined.

It has also been shown that as we move deeper, initially into the region of the microworld of elementary particles and the atomic nucleus ~10–15 m and subsequently into the region of the ultra-microworld ~10–25 m of the quantised space-time, we encounter higher and higher energy concentrations. The energy capacity of the quanton is colossal and estimated at 1073 J/m3. This is sufficient to generate a universe as a result of a big bang in activation of 1 m3 of vacuum.

It has also been found that the electromagnetic perturbation of the vacuum is described by a simple equation: Dx = –Dy which can be expanded into the main equations of the electromagnetic field in vacuum. The displacement from the equilibrium deposition of the electrical Dx and magnetic Dy charges – quarks inside the quanton disrupts the electrical and magnetic equilibrium of the quantised space-time. Real bias currents were found in the electromagnetic wave.

Inside the quantised space-time we can find an electromagnetic string or a superstring of quantons which determines the colossal tension of the quantised space-time. Taking into account the fact that the quanton is a volume elastic element similar to some extent to an electronic clock specifying the rate of electromagnetic processes and time, the quantum not only combines electricity and magnetism but, being a space-time quantum, it combines the space and time into a single substance: quantised space-time.

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation


Chapter 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation. Antigravitation

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 167-261 pages.

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by the development of the theory of relativity. In the framework of the general theory of relativity (GTR), Einstein laid the foundations of gravitation as the properties of distortion of the space-time, assuming that there is a unified field which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation. In 1996, the space-time quantum (quanton) and the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) was discovered as the united field which is the carrier of electromagnetic and gravitation interactions. The concentration of the quantons (quantum density of the medium) is the main parameter of the quantised space-time. In electromagnetic interactions the concentration of the quantons does not change and only the orientation and deformation polarisation of the quantons change. Gravitation is manifested in the case of the gradient redistribution of the quantum density of the medium, changing the quanton concentration. Electromagnetism and gravitation have been unified within the framework of the quantum theory of gravitation based on the quantum as the unified carrier of electromagnetism and gravitation.

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Nature of the electromagnetic wave. The luminiferous medium
3.2.1. Return to the luminiferous medium
3.2.2. Optical media. Fizeau experiment
3.3. Fundamentals of gravitation theory
3.3.1. Two-component solution of Poisson  equation
3.3.2. Deformation vector D
3.3.3. Equivalence of energy and mass
3.3.4. Gravitational diagram
3.3.5. Black hole
3.3.6. Additional gravitational potentials
3.3.7. Newton gravitational law

3.4. Reasons for relativism
3.4.1. Relativistic factor
3.4.2. The normalised relativistic factor
3.4.3. Dynamic balance of gravitational potentials
3.4.4. Limiting parameters of relativistic particles
3.4.5. Hidden mass. Mass balance
3.4.6. Hidden energy. Energy balance
3.4.7. Dynamic Poisson equations
3.4.8. Dynamic curvature of space-time
3.4.9. The speed of light
3.5. Nature of gravity and inertia
3.5.1. Formation of mass
3.5.2. Reasons for gravity and inertia
3.5.3. Simple quantum mechanics effects

3.6. The principle of relative-absolute dualism. Bifurcation points
3.6.1. Energy balance
3.6.2. Absolute speed
3.6.3. Energy paradox of motion dynamics
3.6.4. Resistance to movement in vacuum
3.6.5. Dynamics equations
3.6.6. Bifurcation points
3.6.7. Complex speed
3.6.8. Relativistic momentum

3.7. Wave mass transfer. Gravitational waves
3.8. Time problems. Chronal waves
3.9. Antigravitation. Accelerated recession of galaxies
3.10. Dimensions of the space-time quantum (quanton)
Conclusions for chapter 3
References

Conclusions for chapter 3
The unification of electromagnetism and gravitation was regarded as a fact. It has been established that gravitation is of the electromagnetic nature whose carrier is the superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI).

Gravitation appears in the quantised space-time as a result of its spherical deformation in the formation of the mass of elementary particles.

Correct two-component solutions of the Poisson gravitational equation in the form of a system have been determined for the first time. The functions of distribution of the quantum density of the medium and gravitational potentials inside the particle (solid) in the external region of the spherically deformed quantised space-time have been determined.

It is shown that these spherical functions remain invariant in the entire range of speeds, including the speed of light, and formulate principle of spherical invariance and relative-absolute dualism.

The principal relativity is the fundamental property of the quantised space-time. Gravity is caused by the gradient of the quantum density of the medium and by its deformation vector with the gravity and inertia acting in the direction of this vector.

The force of inertia is also caused by the gradient of the quantum density of the medium and works in the direction of the deformation vector. The gravitational field is quantised in its principle. The space-time quantum (quanton), as a carrier of the gravitational field, is used as a basis for developing the quantum theory of gravitation.

The discovery of the quanton has returned the deterministic base to the quantum theory which was supported by Einstein. The classic wave equation of the elementary particle determining the wave transfer of mass in the superhard and the superelastic quantised medium was analytically derived for the first time.

The wave transfer of mass determines the effect of the principle of corpuscular-wave dualism in which the particle shows both the properties of the wave and the corpuscle.

It has been established that the free gravitational wave with the speed of light and longitudinal oscillations of the quantised medium, generating the longitudinal the zones of compression and tension in the quantised medium, can exist in the quantised space-time.

The nature of gravitation, which explains the accelerated recession of the galaxies of our universe, has been determined.

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 4. The quantised structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino


Chapter 4. The quantised structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 262-351 pages.

The quantised structure of the electron and the positron has been investigated in the development of the Superunification theory. These particles are open quantum mechanical systems and are the compound part of the quantised space-time. The electron (positron) as an elementary particle forms as a result of attraction of the quantons to the central electrical charge placed in the quantised medium. As a result of the spherical deformation of the medium, the electrical charge acquires the mass and transforms into the electron (positron). It has been established that the main factor which ensures spherical deformation of the medium by the electron is its spherical magnetic field, an analogue of the spin. In annihilation of the electron and the positron the spherical magnetic field is disrupted and the energy of the spherical deformation of the medium, i.e., the energy of the mass defect, is released and transforms into radiation gamma quanta. The released massless charges merge into an electrical dipole, forming the electron neutrino, an information bit indicating that the pair of the particles electron and positron did exist. It has also been found that the movement of the electron (positron) in the superelastic and superhard quantised medium is determined by the wave transfer of mass and tunnelling of the point electrical charge in the channels between the quantons of the medium.

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Classic electron radius
4.3. Gravitational boundary of the electron
4.4. Electrical radius of the electron
4.5. Hidden energy and electron mass
4.6. Many relationships of electron parameters
4.7. Gravitational diagram and electron zones
4.8. The gravitational attraction zone
4.9. Equivalence of gravitational and electromagnetic energies
4.10. Tensioning of the medium by the electron
4.11. Gravitational well of the electron
4.12. The zone of antigravitational repulsion
4.13. The zone of the minus mass of the electron
4.14. Annihilation of the electron and the positron
4.15. The effect of electrical force on the quanton in the electron
4.16. Effect of the spherical magnetic field of the quanton. Electron spin
4.17. Electron energy balance
4.18. Tunnelling of the charge and wave transfer of electron mass
4.19. Conclusions
References

4 .19. Conclusions
1. New fundamental discoveries of the space-time quantum (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction enable us to investigate the quantised structure of the electron and the positron as an open quantum mechanical system, being the compound part of the quantised space-time. The electron and the positron as elementary particles are in fact not so elementary and their composition includes a large number of quantons which together with the central electrical charge form the particle inside the quantised medium.

2. It has been established that the mass of the electron (positron) forms as a result of attraction of the quantons to the central electrical charge under the effect of ponderomotive forces of the nonuniform radial electrical field of the central charge. At the same time, a spherical magnetic field, a spin analogue, forms around the central charge. In particular, the spherical magnetic field of the electron (positron) is the main factor which ensures spherical deformation of the quantised medium leading to the formation of the mass of the particle. In contrast to the nuclons, the electron (positron) does not have any distinctive gravitational boundary in the quantised medium. The conventional gravitational boundary of the electron (positron) is represented by its classic radius, producing a ‘jump’ in the quantum density of the medium.

3. The gravitational diagram of the electron (positron) has been analysed. Several characteristic energy zones were found in the electron (positron):
• the zone of gravitational attraction (gravitational well);
• the zone of gravitational repulsion (gravitational hillock);
• the zone of hidden mass and energy
The effect of the zone of gravitational repulsion is evident at the distances smaller than the classic electron radius (of the order of 10–15 m. This explains the capacity of the electron to move away from the proton nucleus of the atom, with the exception of the electron capture regime. This also explains the change of the nuclear attraction forces to the repulsion forces when the alternating shells of the nucleons come together to distances smaller than the effect of the nuclear forces 10–15 m.

4. The balance of the energy and electron mass (positron) in the entire range of speeds in the quantised medium, including the speed of light, have been determined. The electron energy is manifested as a difference between its limiting and hidden energies. The electron mass is a difference between its limiting and hidden masses. With the increase of the electron speed, the hidden energy and mass of the electron change to the observed forms.

5. The tensioning of the quantised medium around the electron has been investigated. The maximum tension force reaches the value 29 N on the surface of the gravitational boundary of the electron, and the tension is estimated at 0.29·1030 N/m2 for the electron in the rest state and increases with the increase of the speed in proportion to the normalised relativistic factor. As a result of the colossal tension of the medium, the electron retains its spherical shape. At the same time, the spherical gravitational field is retained in the entire speed range, including the speed of light, with the principle of spherical invariance valid in this case.

6. In addition to the well-known dynamics equation in the electron, it has been shown that the physical nature of the phenomenon is explained most accurately by the dynamics equation with the variation of the mass and energy of the electron along the acceleration path. Continuous acceleration of the electron is accompanied by the redistribution of the quantum density of the medium inside its gravitational boundary, generating the force of resistance to movement. This is a non-inertial movement regime. In transition to the regime of movement by inertia (inertial regime), the electron releases the internal stress determined by the redistribution of the quantum density of the medium during acceleration. Repeated acceleration of the electron is accompanied by bifurcation of the energy in which the electron appears to count its motion anew, determining the fundamentality of the relativity principle as a unique property of the quantised space-time.

7. It has been established that the movement of the electron (positron) in the superelastic and superhard quantised medium is determined by the wave transfer of mass and by tunnelling of the point charge in the channels between the quantons of the medium. Annihilation of the electron and the positron is accompanied by the disruption of the spherical magnetic field and the released energy of spherical deformation of the medium, as a mass defect, transforms to radiation gamma quanta. The released mass free charges merge into an electrical dipole, forming an electronic neutrino, which is an information bit relating to the existence of a pair of particles: electron and positron. The laws of conservation in annihilation of the electron and the positron are valid only in this case.

Theory of Superunification. Chapter 5. Quantised structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces


Chapter 5. Quantised structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces

Leonov V. S. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages.

In 1966, the structure of nucleons with the sign-changing shell with integer charges – quarks was proposed in the theory of the elastic quantised medium (EQM). This concept proved to be fruitful for the Superunification theory and enabled the nature of nuclear forces to be investigated as contact forces acting between the sign-changing shells of the nucleons. These forces act over short distances and their magnitude and nature correspond to the nuclear forces, but they are characterised by electrical attraction of shells and their antigravitational repulsion.

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Problem of the nucleon mass
5.3. Shell sign-changing model of the nucleon
5.4. Shell models of the proton
5.5. Shell models of the neutron
5.6. Structure of nucleon shells
5.7. Prospects for splitting the nucleon into elementary components
5.8. Electrical natue of nuclear forces
5.9. Analytical calculation of nuclear forces
5.10. Electrical energy of nuclear forces
5.11. Electrical potential of nuclear forces
5.12. Calculation of neutron interaction
5.13. Proton-proton interaction
5.14. Nuclear forces in quantum mechanics
5.15. The zones of antigravitational repulsion in the nucleon shells
5.16. Conclusions
References

5.16. Conclusions
The nature of the nuclear forces is one of the most important problems of theoretical physics. It has been assumed that the nuclear forces are the maximum possible forces in nature, characterising the strong fundamental interaction, as one of the four forces known in nature. Attempts to unify the strong interaction with other: electromagnetism and gravitation, have not been successful. It has been shown that this is caused by the fact that on the whole the strong interaction is not a carrier of the maximum possible force and cannot be therefore used as a unifying factor. In order to unify the nuclear forces with gravitation and electromagnetism, and also electroweak interactions, we must have an even greater force, previously not known in science. This is the golden rule of physics that the force can be conquered only by a greater force.

The presence of such a Superforce, as the fifth force, became known after discovery of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction. In particular, SEI (and not the strong interaction) is the carrier of the Superforce. For comparison: the attraction force of the nucleons, characterising the nuclear forces, is estimated at approximately 0.63 kN (Table 5.1), and the force of interaction between the quantons is of the order of 1023 N. The diameter of the nucleon is ~10–15 m, the diameter of the quanton ~10–25 m. Even if we not relate the forces to their crosssection, these forces are simply incommensurable. As we penetrate deeper into matter, we face higher and higher concentrations of forces and energy. It becomes clear that the only source of energy in the universe is the superstrong electromagnetic interaction. This is electromagnetic energy. All the known types of energy (chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic, gravitation, etc) are regarded in the final analysis as the manifestation of the superstrong interaction and are represent only method of extracting the energy of this interaction. We live in the electromagnetic universe.

The nuclear forces, acting between the nucleons and the atomic nucleus, must be examined from the unified positions of unification of the fundamental interactions through the superstrong electromagnetic interaction. Here, it must be understood that the mass of the nucleons forms as a result of the spherical deformation of the quantised space-time which is a carrier of the superstrong electromagnetic interaction. It has been established that the only possible method of spherically deforming the elastic quantised medium, ensuring that all the possible properties of the nucleons are utilised, is the presence in the nucleon of the shell assembled from electrical massless charges with sign-changing signs.

This shell is sign-changing and has the property of contracting on the sphere with the effect of forces of electrical attraction between the charges of the nucleon shell. The spherical compression of the sign-changing shell takes place together with the medium inside the shell. However, on the external side of the shell, the elastic quantised medium is subjected to tension. In this case, the quantum density of the medium (quanton concentration) inside the shell increases and outside the shell it decreases. Consequently, the nucleon assumes a mass as the parameter of ‘distortion’ of the quantised space-time under the effect of spherical deformation. The resistance of the shell to collapse is limited by the pressure of the medium inside the shell which is balanced by the tension of the elastic quantised medium from the external side. In addition, the factor of stability of the nucleons in relation to the collapse of the shell includes the zones of anti-gravitational repulsion between the nuclei of the sign-changing shell whose effect starts to be evident at distances shorter than the classic electron radius of the electron.

Another fundamental property of the sign-changing shells of the nucleons is their capacity to be attracted by the charges with opposite polarity, regardless of the presence or absence of a non-compensated electrical charge. In the proton, the shell contains a non-compensated electrical charge with positive polarity and an odd number of charges – 69 charges. In the neutron, the number of charges in the sign-changing shell is even (72 charges) and these charges are compensated in pairs, so that the neutron is regarded as an electrically neutral particle.

The electrical neutrality of the neutron is evident at distances greater than 10–15 m. At shorter distances, not only in the neutron but also in the proton, the electrical field of the sign-changing shell of the nucleons is characterised by specific features of action at short distances of 10–16... 10–15 m, comparable with the spacing of the distribution of the charges in the shell. These are short-range fields and forces which enable the forces of electrostatic attraction of the shells to overcome the forces of electrostatic repulsion of the non-compensated charge of the protons in the atomic nucleus. The open zones of anti-gravitational repulsion in the complicated relief of the fields of the nucleon shells prevent the nucleons from coming together closer than 10–16 m, thus avoiding the collapse of the nucleons and ensuring stability of the nuclei.

In particular, the sign-changing structure of the nucleon shells, including the zones of electrostatic attraction and anti-gravitational repulsion, has made it possible to formulate a concept of the electrical nature of nuclear forces within the framework of the Superunification theory.